Modernization is the process of change in the sectors of the economy, politics and social systems. These changes reflects the movement of societies from a traditional stage to a more modern phase.
How does modernization occur?
Modernization occurs through:
1. Colonialism: this is an important reason for modernization. The Indian colonial master introduced the English language which was the first sign of modernization.
2. Migration: this is also a reason for modernization. This can especially be illustrated by the migration of Europeans to the colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Aspects of modernization
The following points are the basic aspects of modernization:
1. The modern way of living: this happens when the old way of living changes into a modern way. Example replacement of mat with a dining table or replacement of pitcher with a water cooler.
2. Changes in residence: for the comfort of living, some people changed their residence from wooden huts to houses made with bricks.
3. Mass media: A communicate through narration has now being replaced by newspapers and internet.
4. Urbanization: The domestic migration to cities or urban areas from rural areas. Example: Just after the independence of Pakistan, 87% population was living in villages and 12% was in cities. But presently 68% lives rural ares and 32 % can be found in urban areas. This is one of the main characteristics of modernization.
5. Change of profession. In the beginning, the economy was agrarian in nature, but in due time industrialization occurred. This is another main feature of modernization: the rapid industrialization of societies.
6. literacy and education: a situation whereby the population literacy rates increase dramatically.
7. High per capital income: the significant rise of the per capital income is important due to the higher purchasing power of the people which will, in turn, boost significant economic growth.
Economic aspects of modernization
The economic aspect of modernization can be derived from the following points:
1. Money: this takes place when the barter system has now been replaced with paper money.
2. Wage system: this happens because in traditional societies wages were not connected to time whereas in modern societies wages became related to time.
3. Communication system: communication is compulsory for economic development. because communication is important for economic, social and political functioning.
4. Technology and its application: through modernization, the technology applied in daily lives of the people has replaced the old ways of doing things with manual/animal powert.
5. Preservation of food products: the storage of food and other products and the distribution of such items in a systematic way increases the consumption and production of food products..
Political modernization is regarded as the result of economic development and social mobilization.
Political modernization contains three elements:
1. Validation of authority
2. Development of political participation
3. Differentiation of structure
Characteristics of political modernization
The following are the most important characteristics of political modernization:
1. It increased the influence of a single Authority: with the process of political modernization, the influence of a single authority and its agencies increased and become widespread.
2. Variation of functions: political modernization has brought a clear picture of the differentiation function.
3. Ultimate power rest with the people: political modernization can be observed with the shifting of ultimate power to the people which occurred slowly and gradually.
4. Democratic values and principles become popular: Like Nelson Mandela said: one man, one vote and regular elections to clean up the political swamp.
5. Secularization of politics: the separation of religion and state.